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Boaretto e Associati
The Australian Pavilion at the Venice Biennale Gardens
The structure has two storeys above ground. The ground floor, entirely reinforced concrete, is de facto a rigid base support to the first floor, entirely structural steelwork, which features a cantilever whose size is significant compared to the volume of the whole building.
The building’s roof, also a steel structure, acts as a rigid diaphragm and is pitched to allow drainage of rainwater to the sides of the building. From a seismic point of view, taking into account the low seismicity of the site, the structure is designed to remain elastic, so that its horizontal deformations are so small as to fit with the rigidity of the stone cladding.
The Khalifa International Stadium is one of the symbolic buildings of Doha and is part of the biggest sports complex in Qatar: the Aspire Zone. The stadium has been chosen as one of the stadiums for the World Football Championship 2022.
The stadium will host games during the qualification phase, quarter and semi final. Built in 1976, Khalifa Stadium was renovated during 2006 for the Asian Games and in order to host the World Football Championship a further renovation will be performed by the end of 2016. The Capacity of the stadium will be doubled from 20.000 to 40.000 seats ant the roof will be modified to cover all the bleachers with two big arches spanning over 400 meters, supporting the cable net and fabric cover. During the presentation the most important items of the design of the roof structure will be highlighted: innovative engineering approach was required to solve extraordinary challenges for the renovation of the existing structure as well as the integrated dependency of steel, cables and fabric elements.
The reconstruction of the Teatro Galli in Rimini - The Structural Design
During the 19th Century the town of Rimini acquired an international reputation for the seaside, and a new theatre which was designed by Luigi Poletti succeeded in translating into Neoclassical form the ambitions of the ruling classes. The theatre was completely destroyed during II World War.
In the following decades, many proposals were developed for the new theatre. In 2003, the final design was accepted, following the rule “where it was, how it was”. The new structural design involves various fields of structural engineering, from geotechnical design to prefabricated and cast in place reinforced concrete structures, steel and wood structures.
Dynamic Response of Non-Structural Elements of Buildings Under Seismic Loading
Enrica Riva, Department of Industrial Engineering - University of Parma
Andrea Spagnoli – University of Parma, Italy
Industrial installations, such as food storage and handling systems, might be characterized by pendulum oscillating masses. When such installations are placed on an elevated story of a building, its seismic response is influenced by dynamic coupling effects of the building vibrations and the pendulum mass oscillations. In the present paper, with reference to RC framed buildings, such an interaction is investigated through geometrically non-linear dynamic transient analyses in which the earthquake excitation is inputted as artificial accelerograms compatible with design response spectra for damage limit state. The dynamic response is compared with that obtained for a model of the building where the pendulum masses are assumed to be attached to the building structures. The final aim of the present study is to highlight possible beneficial effects on the seismic response of the building of the oscillating masses belonging to the industrial installation, which might act as a pendulum mass damper.
A first model of the entire building has been carried out using Abaqus code, therefore the structure has been modelled as a cantilever beam using Straus 7 software.
A 6 metre long glass footbridge for the ancient public Slaughterhouse of Pisa
The paper illustrates the design process and the load testing of a steel-reinforced laminated glass beam built for a 6 m span glass footbridge. This specific glass footbridge has been designed and tested to join two existing floors of the main room of a refurbished masonry building of the 19th century public slaughterhouse of Pisa. To meet the needs for transparency asked by the Municipality of Pisa the beams, the running surface and the balustrades, were made of laminated glass. The project started with a design of a 5790 mm length beam which has been designed and checked using analytical and numerical modelling.
Previously a series of 4-point bending experimental tests had been performed on 6 specimens of 2000 mm steel-reinforced glass beams at the University of Pisa in order to validate the accuracy of both the numerical and the analytical modelling. A final load testing has been done on the footbridge and the results have been compared with the numerical findings.
Soil-structure interaction on prediction of the response of precast RC structures subjected to seismic action
Antonello Gasperi, C.Eng, Consulting Engineer, Modena, Italy
Beatrice Belletti, Roberto Valentino - DICATeA – University of Parma, Italy
Soil-structure interaction in the structural modelling can be fundamental to predict the actual response of structures subjected to seismic actions. In the present paper, soil-structure inertial interaction is analysed with reference to a single-story precast frame concrete structure (typical of industrial buildings) founded on isolated footings.
The analysis is carried out within the framework of dynamic impedance method using Straus7 software.
Structural Modelling of the load test on the existing RC frame analysis and considerations on the test results
During the seismic improvement works executed on the secondary school Jacopo Zannoni situated in Montecchio Emilia (RE) it has been carried out the load test on the framed Reinforced Concrete structures during the final inspection period. In order to check the allowable test load to be applied on the structure it has been developed a non linear analysis of the concrete section in the test configuration, the theoretical results obtained from this study have been compared with the results obtained from the load test. Afterwards the test data have been compared to the data obtained from the software to redefine the model using a back analysis to validate the results.
The below images show the structural model using the software Straus7 and the behaviour of the element sections in therms of bending curve starting from the data set for the scope, evaluating at the same time the influence of the ultimate resistance value of the materials on the analysis results.
Structural Analysis of a long span roof structure after a fire
Samuele Sassi, FSC Engineering
Setti Paolo, Politecnico di Milano
After a fire took place in construction phase of a new elliptic roof of a shopping centre in Doha (Oasis Skylight - Mall of Qatar), which has a great span dimensions (112 x 68 m), a series of studies and analyses are performed to ensure the structural safety of the roof. The fire proofing previously applied on the roof structure limited the possible damage and the passive fire protection is renewed after the fire.
The preliminary fire investigation is useful to understand the dynamics of the fire took place in the roof and the results are utilized to rebuild fluid dynamics models (two zones models by B-Risk software and CFD models by FDS software) in order to obtain thermal effects generated on structure. Assessment of post-fire damages of roof structure became possible by FEM analyses (Straus7 software) once the fluid dynamics models are performed. Welded connections and the highly loaded structural elements, which are critical, are investigated according to obtained results. In the end, the structural analyses are redone (Straus7 software) by taking into account the post fire effects (permanent deformations, etc.) and local reinforcements in order to guarantee structural safety with cost and time optimization.
Digital Project is the name given by SWS Engineering to the digitalization of civil infrastructures design processes.
Digitalization of design processes is a relatively new and revolutionary concept for civil infrastructure engineering, and clears the air to computer aided design approaches traditionally belonging to the mechanical engineering disciplines: multi-objective optimizations, sensitivity analyses, statistical analysis, process optimization.
BIM and GIS technologies are the key technological tools that, combined with robust procedures, allow to digitalize conventional civil engineering design, i.e. convert design input and output in 3D geo-referenced parametric geometries and store non-geometric information in databases. Furthermore, IT technologies are nowadays accessible at a civil engineering design company level and boost conventional design processes and approaches.
The presentation will illustrate the latest application of SWS Digital Project to large underground works where BIM, GIS and IT technologies have been leveraged to optimize Tunnel Boring Machine performance and minimize risk during construction.
An important target in this industral field is the achievement of nearly-constant density and residual-stress fields throughout the a ceramic green body. This is necessary for producing highquality and high-performance ceramics. The use of computational tools for virtual prototyping of molds and processes helps to accelerate development and to decrease costs. Possible design improvements are particularly advantageous for the production of large green bodies with complex geometries.
Through a novel industry/academia partnership funded by the Euroean Community, post graduate students have developed a novel constitutive models for ceramic powder compaction, which include: a new formulation for elastic behavior of the powder phase, a modelling of the compaction law, and of elastic stiffening. This new computational model has been calibrated on uniaxial compaction experiments and triaxial compression data for Martoxid KMS 96 alumina powder. Once the model has been calibrated, the parameterization has been succesfully used to predict the compaction behavior of the alumina powder in the formation of green bodies.
The research leading to these results has received funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013/ under REA grant agreement n? PITN-GA-2013-606878-CERMAT2.
GABRIELE ECCHER | Curriculum
SWS is an engineering company active in infrastructure construction, offering specialist engineering, project management and risk management services. For over thirty years, SWS has been helping clients build works which form the infrastructural backbone of local communities. We are committed to designing and building works with a sustainable economic, environmental and social footprint. As a leader in tunnelling, SWS prides itself for working on the world's most important projects where we were able to offer the same level of technical expertise and efficiency for projects constructed in geologically complex or congested urban areas. SWS has offices in Trento, Torino, Roma (Italy), Ankara (Turkey), London (UK) and Toronto (Canada).
Gabriele Eccher graduated as a structural engineer from University of Trento, Italy and completed post graduate studies with PhD in computational mechanics for coupled instability of thin-walled steel structures at the University of Sydney, NSW, Australia. He joined SWS Engineering in 2010 and since then has specialized in tunnelling and underground technology, research and development. Since 2014 Gabriele has managed the Research and Development department at SWS’s headquarter in Trento, Italy. His main areas of interest are related to data collection and analysis, integration of design processes, BIM technologies and coordination of IT projects supporting underground engineering.
C-SPIN Centro Sviluppo Progettazioni Ingegneristiche
Utility and use of FEM models as support of structural diagnostics in Civil Engineering
In the context of civil construction, like building and infrastructures, is increasingly common the use of “in site” diagnostic tests in order to characterize the real structural behaviour. The definition of the structural limits of whatever thing to be investigated, both reinforced concrete or metallic structures, requires a preliminary careful study both to check out test’s reference values (displacement or ultimate strength rather than the interesting frequencies range) both to be able to operate safely. The numerical models, with FEM modeling, allows to pre-qualify tests and also to operate an useful “back analysis”. In this paper will be presented the comparison between numerical models and experimental activities of interest cases listed below:
An example of application of prestressed technique in metal tie rod on historical buildings;
An analysis to define the limit load of an aluminium cast industrial component;
A reinforcing technique by coaction of existing hollow-core concrete floors;
Vibrational analysis of suspended walkway;
A transient dynamic analysis with evaluation of maximum acceleration levels on vibrating screen.
Supporting exploration of design alternatives using multivariate analysis algorithms for architectural design
Rusne Sileryte, Delft University of Technology, The Nederlands
Antonio D'Aquilio, Delft University of Technology, The Nederlands
Michela Turrin, Delft University of Technology, The Nederlands
Yimin Sun, University of Technology, Guangzhou, China
Parametric modelling allows quick generation of a large number of design alternatives. Ultimately, it can be combined with optimization algorithms for obtaining optimal performance-driven design. However, setup of design space for optimization is a very complex task requiring designer’s a priori knowledge and experience.
Therefore, this paper focuses on the process, which happens before the optimization.
It proposes to use multivariate analysis algorithms for exploring and understanding the relations between various design parameters, after sampling the design space. Additionally, portrayal of geometry is introduced as an extension of conventional visualization methods, which accounts for evaluation of ill-defined design criteria by using designer’s expertise. The proposed method is computationally efficient and integrated into an environment familiar to architects. It relies on multivariate analysis capabilities and an interactive dashboard developed for geometry portrayal.
Antiseismic devices (Fluid Viscous Dampers and Shock Transmitters) in the retrofit of a Multi-Span Steel-Concrete Viaduct
Alessandro Contin, E2B
The hydraulic devices are an efficient solution for the control of seismic stresses induced by continuous viaducts on substructures. The paper discusses the analysis of the dynamic behavior of the retrofit of a multi-span steel-concrete viaduct adopting velocity dependent anti-seismic
devices. The bridge features a total length of 1,360m and a continuous deck on 18 spans with variable clearance from 52 to 92m; the piers have a variable height ranging from 7.90m to 38.80m.. Given the remarkable irregularity of the height of the piers and of the road alignment, it was necessary to couple the oscillation of the deck and the oscillation of the piers. Such coupling has been induced by the introduction of shock transmitter and viscous-type devices able to control the forces conveyed to
the underlying piers which can form plastic hinges. The analysis of the viaduct takes into account the dissipative behavior of the structural elements, (material and geometric non-linearity). The assessment of the actions has been carried out by means of a non-linear dynamic analysis with step-by-step integration of equation of motion.