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FCA Italy

Giancarlo Gotta

Advanced automotive engine cooling system components. Control strategy studies by 1d simulation: a possible approach

Nicola Cauda, FCA Italy
Fausto Di Sciullo FCA Italy


Compared to the past, automotive engine cooling systems are reqired to extend their capabilities, supporting fuel economy improvement and reducing vehicle ecological footprint. This task can be accomplished introducing new components or innovative subsystems design, whose purpose is tailoring engine cooling system performances according vehicle demand.

Most new parts have to be programmed to be effective, therefore thermal engineers need a quick investigation method to avoid mutual controls interference and set up appropriate specifications during early vehicle development. This paper describes a possible approach to fulfill this goal, relying on simplified 1d thermohydraulic simulation.

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VM Motori

Alessandro Piccaglia

Multi-objective Optimization of a V6 3.0L diesel engine under different operative conditions

Andrea Bedogni – VM Motori
Francesco Franchini – EnginSoft
Marco Serafini - EnginSoft


The purpose of this project is the study of the influence of several engine design parameters on engine performance in terms of Time to Torque, Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC), Torque and Air/Fluel ratio, for different operating conditions: full load, emissions area, transient condition. The integrated work of the two software, GT-SUITE and modeFRONTIER, allowed to manage, in an automated way, a really challenging project, both for the high number of parameters involved and for the strong conflict of optimization objectives. Exploiting the Multi-Criteria Decision Making tool available in modeFRONTIER it has been possible to choose the final engine configuration amongst all optimal solution identified by the optimization software (Pareto frontier)

Compared to baseline, the optimized engine ensures a significant improvement of performance in transient condition and, at the same time, a reduction of fuel consumption and emissions.

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Vanderplaats Research and Development, Inc.

Juan Pablo Leiva

Integrating Topology with Shape and Sizing Optimization Using the Approximation Concepts Approach

Brian C. Watson, Vanderplaats Research and Development, Inc.


This paper describes the integration of topology optimization with shape, sizing and other types of optimization. Traditionally engineers use topology for preliminary design whereas sizing and shape optimization is used later on to further refine the design. So it is common to have topology as a separate type of optimization while sizing and shape is used together. In recent years more advanced types of sizing and shape such as topometry, topography and freeform have being used like topology optimization for preliminary design.

Therefore users of these types of optimizations have started to have a need of a merged topology with the rest of types of optimization. In response to this need, we have integrated topology with other types of optimization. The paper describes the use of the approximation concepts approach to efficiently solve the mixed topology, shape and sizing optimization problem. This work has already been implemented in the structural optimization program GENESIS. Several examples that show the benefits of the integration are presented. One example will demonstrate the integration of topology and shape optimization. Another example will demonstrate the integration of topology and sizing optimization. In addition, applications for the automobile industry will be shown.

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General Motors

Giuseppe Corbo

Optimization-based Gasket Tuning for Diesel Engine Cooling Jacket Design

Ivan Flaminio Cozza, General Motors - Global Propulsion Systems


One of the most critical systems for a Diesel Engine is the Cooling System: the hottest components durability and the engine performance are related to the capability to reject the heat from combustion chamber. The Cooling system main component is Cooling Jacket: a fluid core dug inside the Engine Head and Block surrounding the hottest parts of the engine, preventing hot shocks.

An important process during Coolant Jacket design for automotive applications is the Gasket Tuning: it is possible to improve Coolant Jacket performances, just scaling gasket holes size. In this way, it is possible to locally increase flow velocity in order to assure the best cooling in hottest regions and to avoid boiling risk. Thanks to the small geometry modifications and the easy calculation and representation of the outputs, it is possible to perform a parametric automatic optimization: it uses gasket holes percentage of scale as parameters and permits to optimize every Coolant Jacket performance. Different commercial softwares were tested.

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AVL List GmbH

Martin Sopouch

Recent advances in gear whine and rattle NVH-simulation: From the source of the gear excitation towards the sound radiated from the gearbox

Mehdi Mehrgou, Mario Brunner, Achim Hepberger, Hemant Bansal - AVL List GmbH


Gear whine and rattle are the two key-aspects of NVH in automotive gearboxes. A reliable simulative prediction requires a comprehensive workflow starting from the gear contact, further covering structure borne noise transfer and finally ending at the sound radiated from the gearbox housing. The paper aims to explain the physics behind gear rattle and whine, and the building up of physical simulation models utilizing multi-body dynamics for the structural domain as well as the wave based technique (WBT) for the air born noise domain. At the end results are presented by means of sound samples obtained via experiment as well as simulation.

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EnginSoft Germany

Conrad Töpfer

Product Lifecycle Quality® - key to ZERO DEFECT


Real life production and the use of products of higher complexity – such as Autonomous driving or related processes to Industry 4.0 – put a higher interlectual pressure onto development resources. Multibody could cover historical mechanical and mechatronic requirements – Multiphysics - including taking into account programming algorithms- plus vice/versa optimization and statistics is the only strategy to support upcoming product development requirements. Parasitic effects, that cause defects in proper / unproper use, can be identified and eliminated; Effects of use and wearout can be forecasted and included into an advance maintenance strategy. Driving objective is to specify the key to Zero Defect!

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Mercedes Benz

Praveen Mishra

A Simplified Approach Towards Optimization of Automotive Trims

Subramanian G, Mercedes Benz Research and Development India Private Limited


Automotive trim is an aesthetic cover which conceals the structural features from view of the human vision. Since it offers negligible structural function it is essential that its weight should be as minimum as possible. However at the same time it should be stiff enough to withstand accidental blows from the user. Given a vast design variables and constraints along with the shortening product lead time there is a need for coming up with a simplified optimization procedure where in a product engineer can quickly come up with a design solution which can offer a direction towards an optimized structure.

In optimization the most time consuming activity is to build a separate design volume (solid) based on the packaging and other assembly constraints. An investigation carried out to reduce this time is presented in this paper. OptiStruct is the tool used for optimization. With the method presented in this paper, structural optimization can be carried out quickly and easily to arrive at the initial first cut concept.

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AVL List GmbH

Alessandro Colla

Energy consumption assessment for battery electric vehicle


Global drivers, such as the need to save primary energy sources or to reduce green house gas emissions have resulted in many new challenges for the automotive industry, one of them being the increased demand for electrified vehicles. In order to meet these new demands and customers’ expectations, performance of electric vehicles must be enhanced and development times shortened. This paper presents an advanced simulation environment that allows to consider the influence of different driving cycles on the energy consumption of electrified drivetrains in the early development phases and thus increases efficiency, flexibility and development speed.

As framework, a co-simulation platform efficiently integrates various sub-models (vehicle, driveline, cooling system, controls) from different tool suppliers and for different analysis tasks. A detailed vehicle model for energetic analysis of the powertrain system is built; including a high-voltage battery pack, a high-performance electric machine and a control program with features of the actual VCU (= vehicle control unit).Thermal models of battery, electric machine, inverter, and cooling system estimate the power request of coolant electric pumps. This vehicle model also facilitates investigations on balancing efficiency and drivability by optimizing the e-machine size and the transmission ratio. In a further step the vehicle dynamic model and the environment are included in the co-simulation environment to enable the evaluation of electric powertrain comfort. This paper also gives an outlook on how this model can be further extended to a driving simulator with a driver interface and can be used for testing purposes of ADAS functionalities.

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Ferdinando Ciardiello

Conjugate heat transfer analysis of a LPG evaporator-pressure regulator for automotive application


The increasing focus in the use of alternative fuels for automotive application, that allows an improvement of the environmental sustainability and the strictest international standards, require high performance for the system and its components in different operating condition. In the LPG gaseous injection systems the fuel that comes from the tank is a mixture liquid-vapor and it must be completely vaporized before reach the injectors. In the installed on-board system, the evaporator-pressure regulator shall ensure the completely vaporization of the fuel and the correct pressure of injection in the different engine operating condition. The evaporator developed by Landi Renzo S.p.A., worldwide leader company in the sector, is a heat exchanger of a liquid-bi-phase mixture that uses the engine cooling water as the heat source to provide the necessary heat flux to vaporization of the LPG. In order to study and optimize the heat exchange, increasing the heat transfer to the LPG, a conjugate heat transfer analysis has been performed to simulate the different operating conditions of the component in terms of water flow, water temperature, LPG flow rate and LPG composition.

The CFD simulations have allowed realizing an optimized geometry ensuring the excellent performances even in the presence of very low environmental temperature. Finally, the CFD simulations have proved to be an excellent tool to define the characteristic curve of the evaporator performances.

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ESTECO and University of Udine

Simone Silvetti

Validation of Automotive Control Applications using Formal Methods and metamodeling techniques

Mariapia Marchi, ESTECO


Automotive industry has significantly improved vehicles in terms of safety, fuel economy and emissions by using many networked electronic control units at the price of an increased software complexity, managed in the design phase by resorting to Model Based Development. Physical processes or mechanical systems are described with hybrid models combining discrete and continuous dynamics. The main challenge is to verify whether the model satisfies some requirements previously specified. Simulation alone, however, cannot ensure a rigorous fulfilment of all requirements.

Thus a growing interest has recently arisen in formal methods which can guarantee that. In this work we analyze the validation process of a vehicle control software using an optimization strategy capable of identifying those designs which violate the requirements expressed in terms of temporal logic formulae. The novelty of this approach consists in combining design optimization, metamodels and formal methods.

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BETA CAE Systems

Athanasios Fokylidis

Simulating S&R using E-Line Method in ANSA and μETA


One of important quality aspect during the design process of a vehicle is the provided occupant comfort. Comfort in a vehicle is achieved, among others, through a quiet and durable interior, and through the elimination of Squeak and Rattle noises. A huge amount of different tests take place in laboratories in order to produce interior and exterior components that eliminate the occurrence of such undesirable phenomena. As a result the need for developing numerical models that explain and predict the behavior of a vehicle in Squeak and Rattle is inevitable.

A simulation method that is used for the Squeak and Rattle numerical analysis is the E-LINE method which focuses on calculating and evaluating the relative displacement between two components in time domain. The current paper dives deep in E-LINE method and presents the BETA CAE Systems automated tools that offer a complete and efficient solution in Squeak and Rattle analysis, minimizing the simulation time and human interaction.

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Sergio Macchiavello

Pleasure Vessel Vibration and Noise Finite Element Analysis

Angelo Tonelli, Rina Services


Noise and vibration numerical analyses on a pleasure vessel design were carried out to analyze its dynamic behaviour and to identify the overall vibration characteristics, so that components sensitive to induced vibration forces may be identified and assessed in accordance with the high standard of acoustic comfort requested by this kind of ships. The analyzed pleasure vessel has a total length of 54.6 m and a maximum beam length of 10.2 m. All structural components are made of aluminium. Shell and beam elements were adopted to model structural parts.

Free vibration analysis allowed identifying natural frequencies and mode shapes, while forced vibration analysis were carried out to investigate the dynamic behaviour in different operating conditions and resonances of local structures with excitation forces. Results obtained, in form of structural vibration velocity versus frequency graphs, allowed identifying critical components and suggesting necessary modifications to vessel design. Finally the case study was checked by sea trial measurements to develop even more reliable predictive models.

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Raffaele Ponzini

Caeses and OpenFOAM for Automatic Optimal Hull Design on HPC Platforms

Sthéphane Dyen, Hydros Innovation
Alaric Lukowski, Hydros Innovation (CH)


In this work we present the complete optimization loop of an industrial yacht hull on an HPC platform coupling Caeses and OpenFOAM as performed by a scientific collaboration between CINECA and Hysdros. Hydros is an Engineering & Research Swiss company founded in 2007 with several patented designs in the field of marine and sailing yachting. In recent years Hydros is facing new market segments such as yachts and super-yachts hull design. In this perspective the usage of HPC resources and open-source softwares can be a valuable tool for massive design optimization, nevertheless the feasibility of automatic optimal hull design on HPC infrastructure is to be proved.

A complex multi-hull yacht hull has been selected to perform shape optimization coupling two state-of-the-art software: CAESES for CAD parametric design and optimization driving algorithm and OpenFOAM for 3D Navier-Stokes equation solving including dynamic mesh motion (free sink and trim). CINECA, the Italian node of the HPC European infrastructure (PRACE), provided the computational platform and the technological expertise to enrol in an automatic workflow the design procedures developed by Hydros.

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Daniele Bruno

Hull – support tool interactions for a large yacht made of composite materials

Mauro Giaffreda, MICAD


In last years the trend in marine industry is produce even large and mega yachts, up to 40 m, using composite materials, commonly fiber glass in place of aluminium or steel. Usually, the approach to the construction of a small or medium yacht can be divided into three phases: firstly, the realization of the hull included all the structures, secondly the structural bulkheads are inserted and connected to the structures and finally, the hull is closed from above placing the main deck. Over the deck, if present, are normally connected the superstructures.

Hull and main deck are two pieces that can weigh many tons and reach important dimensions. From the structural side, when parts reach big dimensions there come out several problems especially about handling and transportation. In this paper we describe the structural simulations arranged to study the behavior of a hull and its support tool during their movements. The aim is to define a better configuration.

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EnginSoft Turkey

Sadi Kopuz

Optimum Design of Exhaust System of a Ship

Hasan Avsar, EnginSoft Turkey
Nasser Ghassembaglou, EnginSoft Turkey
Bulvarı, Sanayi Mahallesi, Pendik, Istanbul, Turkey
Levent Kavurmacioglu, Istanbul Technical University, İnonü
Caddesi, Gümüşsuyu, Beyoğlu, Istanbul, Turkey


In this study, the design of exhaust system belonging to a diesel engine has been realized. During the study of the exhaust system design; 3-dimensional model of the system has been constructed and, the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses covered flow mechanism of back pressure. For design of silencer belonging to the exhaust system, acoustic characteristics have been determined by applying an empirical methodology.

The design of the exhaust system has been finalized regarding the design criteria of a diesel engine given by producer company and outfitting of the engine compartment in which the diesel engine was used. Besides that, producing of the silencers has been realized according to the silencer design driven from this study. The dimensions and internal structure of the silencers which are the main components of the exhaust system and physical properties of insulation material have been determined based on acoustics, back pressure and the layout of the diesel engine in engine room. From results of the back pressure analyses, it is seen that total back pressure in the whole exhaust system is within the limits of the given diesel engine. It is determined that the noise which is produced from the diesel engine exhaust can be considerably lowered as shown by acoustic analyses. Designed silencers have been produced and the whole exhaust system has been outfitted to the engine room compatibly. It has been validated the back pressure and acoustic characteristics resulted from the analyses; via the tests by measuring these values. A methodology for optimizing the acoustics and back pressure at the same time has been derived finally by using optimization platform modeFrontier.

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Argo Tractors

Matteo Fornieri

A CFD study to improve the cooling performance of a 230 kW tractor underhood

Giovanni Esposito - Argo Tractors
Sebastian Colleoni - EnginSoft


In the design of a new tractor model, one of the major issues to face is the cooling of the engine and of all the heat exchangers located in the underhood. Lately, tractors are being designed having larger dimensions, increasing the engine power and thus the need for greater air mass intakes. Due to the vehicle low speed, the air intake is mainly induced by a fan.

Argo Tractors, in collaboration with EnginSoft, studied the air distribution in the underhood in one of their 230 kW models by means of CFD analyses. The study was carried out investigating the cooling of the tractor in the underhood region. The CFD analyses allowed to assess the air flow rate split entering and exiting the underhood, and also allowed the evaluation of the performance of the heat exchangers. During the study, two different fans were compared and the external shell was re-designed. The choice of the more efficient fan, together with the redesign of the shell, allowed a boost in the cooling performance of the vehicle.

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Andrea Negrisolo

An automatic procedure for the optimization of pin bore profile for highly loaded pistons

Pietro Bianchi, Leonardo Engineers for Integration


Piston are a key component of high performance motorcycle engines, last decade’s requirements in gaseous emissions have pushed most of OEM to adopt exclusively four stroke engines with a potential loss in power density. The path to the recovery and eventual increase of specific performance pass through a mechanically painful increase of cycle maximum pressure and turbocharging of motorcycle engine is a matter for the present research and discussion. The contact between piston bore and gudgeon pin is a key feature in the design of a piston and the micro-geometry of the bore is often defined in a non-perfectly cylindrical fashion in order to ensure a uniform contact pressure among the two mating surfaces. Duraldur and Leonardo Engineers for Integration have developed an automatic optimization procedure capable, with the time of a working day in a normal work station, to generate a correction of the cylindrical shape, which reduces to minimum the variability of the contact pressure in that area. The results were validated by the use of the latest features of Ricardo SW program for the secondary motion and durability analysis, PISDYN, which enables the Elasto-HydroDynamic (EHD) simulation of pin-bore contact. Following such validation, Duraldur has introduced such procedure within its process of design release for new applications.

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Leonardo Engineers for Integration

Pietro Bianchi

Concept Development of a titanium piston for CO2 reduction in highly loaded gasoline engines

Cristiana Delprete, Politecnico di Torino - DIMAS


The last decade’s technical evolution of high performance gasoline engines has posed, at least, two major design challenges to piston suppliers: increase of peak cylinder pressure, as a consequence of increased power density, in particular the widespread use of turbocharging, and increased thermal loading due to a soot-rich GDI combustion. Moreover, the requirement for an improvement of fuel economy for environmental reasons pushes the design to search new areas of thermodynamic optimization, aiming both at higher pressure and temperature and lower heat exchanges to the cooling systems. Such challenges have been brilliantly solved in heavy duty diesel engines by the widespread introduction of monolithic steel pistons, which can be considered the standard of the industry at this time. Such an evolution finds, however, unavoidable hustles when it comes to its application to high speed gasoline engines because of the increased mass of the piston, which would significantly reduce the maximum allowable engine speed. It is an opinion of the authors, therefore, that titanium may become a suitable material, at least for a portion of the entire market, for such engines. Even though currently limited by the cost of the base material, it can be shown that such a barrier is less significant, when analyzed against the total cost of production of such parts and the overall benefits that its adoption may lead to. This paper describes the potential market analysis for such a piston, identifying a penetration dynamic into a suitable niche and the identification of a conceptual design for such a component and its virtual validation by the use of Ricardo SW product, namely FEARCE and PISDYN. The impact on engine performance, efficiency and knock limits were also assessed by the use of WAVE, the cycle simulation product of the same suite.

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qpunkt GmbH

Balaji Sukumaran

Virtual water simulation of dynamic deforming profiles

Michael Ehlen, qpunkt Deutschland GmbH


Simulation of large-scale water interacting with dynamic objects is essential in virtual reality, with wide applications in Automotive and Civil industries, etc. As it involves much physical computation, how to achieve fast and reliable simulation is still a challenge. This paper proposes a physically-based simulation framework which is developed to simulate free-surface flows as fast and accurate as possible for rapid simulation of water interacting with moving objects.

The interactions between dynamic objects and the surrounding environment were realized with a specially designed simulation grid. The paper explains new techniques to simulate a deformed tire rolling through water channel and rigid body wiper motion. It provides an accurate solution which includes the effects and interaction of water particles on the deformed profiles.

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Politecnico di Milano

Gabriele Sciamè

Design and optimization of an innovative motorcycle swing arm for the Motostudent competition


Polimi Motorcycle Factory designed and developed a motorcycle prototype to participate to the MotoStudent Competition. This work focuses on the optimization of the chassis stiffness. The combination of the classical tubular structure with a honeycomb core and a carbon fiber cover, turns into a single resisting sandwich structure. This technology increases the mechanical stiffness without altering the global structural behavior of the frame. The result is a thinner and lighter swing arm with added mechanical strength.

The innovative design permits to get both an improvement of the performances of the vehicle, guaranteeing the necessary torsional, flexional and lateral stiffness, and the simplification of manufacturing process. Iterative procedures of structural analysis and optimization, that exploited a set of commercial CAD and FE software, such as Creo, Abaqus and ANSYS, lead to a versatile structure, whose performances stand out the other solutions available on the market, that is now ready for further developments. The advantages of the research activity can be appreciated also from the financial point of view.

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Mario Manganelli

Fluid dynamics Optimization of racing engine inlet ducts at Aprilia Racing

Alberto Clarich, ESTECO


Racing engines are experiencing a continuous evolution that brought them to extraordinary levels of performance and complexity. At the same time racing regulations are restricting considerably development of the engine constraining its main design parameters. As a consequence, improving performances of racing engines has become an increasingly hard task where traditional design methods have become less effective and a significant and ever-increasing contribution of CAE is required. In this paper a method to perform fluid dynamics optimization of intake valves and intake ports of the Aprilia RS-GP motorbike is presented. The purpose is to develop a procedure in which parametric geometry design, automatic mesh generation and three-dimensional CFD analysis are coupled with various optimization techniques (modeFRONTIER) in order to improve fluid dynamic efficiency of valve and port while guaranteeing their feasibility.

As a result the discharge coefficient, at maximum valve lift, of both valve and port has been improved, respectively of 1.5% and 2%. These results have been validated experimentally showing a good agreement, with measured improvements of 1.2 % and 1.6 % respectively.

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Piaggio Group

Pasquale Viola

Connecting rod structural analysis with CAE techniques


Connecting rod is one of the most important components in powertrain systems, therefore, a particular attention is required for stiffness and strength of this part. In this paper, a CAE analysis was carried out in order to evaluate the structural performance of a con rod that Piaggio & C. spa is developing for a new twin engine. The project was designed as follows:

- The multibody model was implemented in order to estimate the dynamic load condition.
- The FE model was used to estimate static and dynamic stiffness, buckling, and stress field for the fatigue analysis.
The evaluations have allowed to predict the safe design of the part.

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A. Bonini

Virtual ROPS testing on agricultural tractors according to OECD Standard Code 7

V. Santarcangelo - BCS Div. FERRARI
C. Martin, G. Bolla - EnginSoft


The Roll Over Protection Structure (ROPS) are key safety features in agricultural and forestry tractors in order to avoid or limit risks to the driver in case of roll over during normal use. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in an effort to improve operator’s safety in Agricultural and Forestry Tractors has set up harmonized testing procedures for ROPS systems. The current OECD Codes for tractors relate to several features of performance. In particular, Code 7 is related to the strength of protective structure in case of roll over. On the one hand, Code 7 foresees a sequence of loadings that the protection system has to withstand until the prescribed energy or force is satisfied. In addition to successfully resist the loading sequence, the ROPS has to guarantee a clearance zone during any part of the tests. By fulfilling all these conditions, the structure is classed as a roll-over protective structure in accordance with the OECD Code 7. In light of the complex testing scenarios, numerical simulations with LS-DYNA® were carried out to virtually assess the performance of a ROPS system designed by the BCS Ferrari manufacturer. As a matter of fact, ROPS simulations turned out to be very useful to understand the behavior of the protection system subjected to complex loading and get valuable insights into performance. The main goal of the simulations was to virtually test the tractor according to the Code 7 prior to official test approval and, if necessary, introduce the necessary structural changes in order to successfully pass the ROPS tests.

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