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Federico Funghi

Feasibility Study on a Hyperstatically constrained (over-constrained) Annular Combustion Chamber of an industrial Gas Turbine


Wear out and vibratory phenomena related to sliding of mating components represent one of the main failure modes of gas turbine combustion systems. Sliding configurations are often used in such kind of systems in order to avoid the over constraining of the combustor which, in turn, can cause low cycle fatigue (LCF) issues. This study aims at:

  • designing a hyperstatic constrained (over-constrained) configuration of an annular combustor (therefore eliminating most sliding contacts),
  • evaluating the structural response of the system under static and dynamic loads,
  • optimizing the configurations on the basis of both static (LCF) and dynamic parameters (HCF),

Fundamental has been setting up the study on the basis of a virtual prototyping approach where Finite Element Analyses, properly linked to an optimization tool, allowed the selection of the most feasible hyperstatic combustor configurations.

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Ansaldo Energia

Roberto Biondi

An analytical and FEM modelling of a large turbogenerator for the determination of the induced currents in rotor components such as the damper windings in order to assure a safe operation also in the worst conditions of faults and of supplying unbalanced loads.

Michele Raciti, Ansaldo Energia


The rotor body of a turbogenerators is normally made as a single heat-treated forging with high mechanical strength and high magnetic permeability. Considering only the electromagnetic phenomena, the rotor provides the excitation field source of the machine by means of the excitation winding located into the rotor slots, thus creating the rotating magnetic field source. In addition, one or more special windings are normally inserted in the rotor body by an appropriate electrical connection of the copper wedges located at the top of each rotor slot.
The main aim of these additional rotor windings is to create a strong electromagnetic shielding of the rotor iron giving rise both to a greater machine stability and to a significant reduction of the eddy currents induced in the rotor steel under the worst conditions of faults and supplying unbalanced loads. In particular, the supplying of unbalanced loads produces negative effects in terms of hot spots induced in the rotor, phenomena that must be accurately predicted by calculations in order to avoid an excessive overheating of the rotor surface which can lead the rotor at risk of dramatic damage.
In this paper, the analytical and numerical calculation methodologies developed in Ansys Maxwell to optimize the turbogenerator damper windings design will be presented besides to an innovative way to transfer via Workbench the electromagnetic analysis results into Ansys Fluent in order to calculate the temperature reached in the rotor hot spots by means of the standard CFD analysis technique. The work here presented has been carried out in collaboration with the Enginsoft technical training team.

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Piping System Research & Engineering Co (NTP Truboprovod)

Alexey Babenko

Automatic selection of closure relations for TUFFP two phase flow unified model

Leonid Korelshteyn, Piping System Research & Engineering Co (NTP Truboprovod)


TUFFP Unified model, developed by Tulsa University Fluid Flow Project research group, is one of the most advanced modern mechanistic models for gas-liquid piping flow analysis and allows to determine flow pattern and calculate liquid holdup and pressure losses with appropriate accuracy. However to apply this model to specific flow case, an engineer needs to define a number of settings (select closure relations) which best suit specific flow parameters of the pipeline. This usually demands expert knowledge. The authors developed a methodology which allows to automate closure relations selection on the base of preliminary processing of available databases of experimental results and embed into the software correspondent knowledge of best closure relations for different regions of parameters.

The methodology was successfully implemented in Hydrosystem software and made TUFFP Unified model to be available for practical usage by non-experts.

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Raffaele Liberatore

Multi-Objective Optimization of a Hydrogen Production Process Powered by Solar Energy

Manolo Venturin, EnginSoft
Mariarosaria Ferrara University “La Sapienza” of Rome / ENEA Italy


Solar-powered thermo-chemical and hybrid cycles are capable of transforming concentrated sunlight into chemical energy by a series of chemical and electrochemical reactions. The net result of such processes is water splitting, i.e. the decomposition of water into oxygen and hydrogen, which can be used as a carbon-free fuel. SOL2HY2 (Solar To Hydrogen Hybrid Cycles) is a European project focused on hydrogen production by water splitting through the so-called hybrid-sulfur process powered with solar energy. Besides investigating key materials and process solutions, the project analyzes the whole production chain and process flowsheet and connects them with multi-objective design and optimization algorithms.

The ultimate aim is to ease the commercialization of hydrogen plants based on this “green” technology. This presentation is focused on the optimization process, which also exploits metamodeling techniques. Different plant locations and production scenarios are considered, with the aim of minimizing hydrogen production costs and maximizing the share of renewables in the energy used in the process.

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Brembana & Rolle

Daniele Agazzi

CFD analysis of annular distributors for shell&tube heat exchangers

Marco Rottoli, Brembana & Rolle
Thomas Odry, Brembana & Rolle - Italy


Shell&tube heat exchangers are widely used in many industries (Oil&Gas, Chemical, Power). Their robustness and affordability make them the preferred choice for several applications. Some services require the processing of large fluid flowrates. If a large flowrate is located at the shell-side, the inlet region of the exchanger could be prone to erosion and vibration due to the high velocity of the fluid entering the tube bundle. The use of an annular distributor allows for a gentle entrance of the fluid in the inlet region.

It reduces the vibration potential, lowering the velocity of the fluid approaching the tube bundle, and provides an impingement protection to the first tubes, preventing them from erosion issues. The present work describes a numerical analysis of this device. The analysis was performed using ANSYS Workbench: Using the geometry of a gas-gas heat exchanger a model was created and meshed. The solver CFX was used to run the simulation. A number of cases were analyzed, varying some geometrical parameters in order to characterize the flow in the distributor and compare different configurations.

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Riccardo Bergamin

HPC-Cloud-based optimization of water turbines for power generation


Zeco is an Italian SME in the renewable energy sector. It specialises in the production of different types of water turbine: Pelton, Francis, Kaplan, and others. Nowadays, the renewable energy sector is one of the most competitive and promising markets, as efficiency and pollution constraints are becoming more and more strict every year. SMEs like Zeco must develop and innovate their products to keep and to gain market share. Hence high-fidelity simulation has become an essential tool for turbine designers because it is faster and cheaper than physical experiments. The Fortissimo SuRE_HPC project has the goal to set up an HPC-cloud-based service to simulate and customize power plants, using Kaplan turbines, under different operating conditions. As physical tests are very expensive in terms of time and costs, CFD analysis can be a very powerful tool in the design process for new turbines, resulting in better designs for less effort and lower cost. For Zeco, and in general for SMEs, the main obstacle for the full exploitation of CFD tools is the required computing power, which can be considerable in a optimization process, and which requires the use of HPC. Hence, CINECA, a supercomputer centre, is involved as the HPC cloud infrastructure provider, while EnginSoft, the domain expert, provides technical know-how and support for the development of the virtual tool, together with the CFD software license.

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Piping Systems Research & Engineering Co (NTP Truboprovod)

Leonid Korelshteyn

Choked and Near Choked Flow Analysis in Pressure Relieve Systems and Role of Isentropic Exponents


The methods of analysis of real gas and two phase gas-liquid flow in safety valve and discharge piping of pressure relieve systems with possible multiple choking are discussed. The role of 2 independent isentropic exponents which define fluid thermodynamic behavior is shown. General differential equations (matrix of influences) for real gas and two phase flow in the pipe for general thermodynamic conditions (including heat exchange with environment) are formulated. The equations are regular and can be effectively solved numerically using standard methods. For special cases of vapor-liquid flow of one-component fluid, and for non-flashing gas-liquid flow exact and appropriate equations for two phase mixture isentropic exponents are proposed, which take into account real properties of vapor/gas and compressibility of liquid. New simplified equations for valve sizing and piping analysis are proposed for a number of important cases.

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Ricerca sul Sistema Energetico - RSE

Francesca Colucci

Numerical modeling of a gas reservoir exploitation

Agate G., Ricerca sul Sistema Energetico - RSE
Guandalini R., Moia F., Ricerca sul Sistema Energetico - RSE


A software suite, called GeoSIAM (Integrated System for GeoModelling Analyses), has been developed in order to realize numerical simulations of all the energy production aspects involving geological reservoirs, such as CO2 and gas storage, oil&gas production, geothermal field exploitation and compressed air energy storage, mainly with the goal of verifying the feasibility and safety of the processes.

In order to point out the main methodology aspects, a demo study referred to a gas field located in Lombardia (Italy) is shown, which analysis includes the creation of the 3D static geological model and the related 3D fluid dynamic model, the search of the equilibrium steady state of the geological reservoir corresponding to the discovery condition and finally the transient simulation of a typical natural gas production and storage scenario, with the goal of verifying the sustainability of the whole process from the safety point of view. The results prove that GeoSIAM allows to perform geological reservoir characterizations with an high level of accuracy and reliability.

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Flow Design Bureau AS

Morten Kjeldsen

Transient modeling of riser load control: Technology qualification using CAE and physical tests

Håvar Sørtveit, WellPartner AS


WellPartner, a supplier of products and services for the international Oil and Gas market, uses numerical modelling as part of the technology qualification process for their WellSafe Explorer product. WellSafe Explorer, a passive heave compensator, provides a near instantaneous emergency back-up for the main and active heave compensator of a floating unit. This way WellSafe Explorer protects the riser and other assets of the operator, and provide an additional safe guard against severe consequences including fatalities and environmental spills. A proper selection and system design for the release valve defines one of the main challenge of the WellSafe Explorer. Previously a series of testing on the valve itself confirmed that the valve behaved satisfactory. However, the qualification process demanded the valve performance to be confirmed in a full scale release test of the WellSafe Explorer. In July 2016 WellPartner performed these tests. The use of Flowmaster, and its mechanical-fluid dynamics, models was instrumental during planning but also for post-processing of results and subsequent technology qualification. This CAE contribution focuses on the benefits of combining physical testing and numerical modelling, and the role of CAE in technology qualification processes. Results both from tests and numerical modeling, and the comparison between the two, will be presented.

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S.A.T.E. Systems and Advanced technologies Engineering

Attilio Brighenti

Simulator of the ORegen system for Waste Heat Recovery from Gas Turbines

Sergio Bondi, Nuovo Pignone Tecnologie
Luca Fioravanti, Simone Amidei, Giovanni Gennari, Nuovo Pignone Tecnologie
John V. Panikulam, S.A.T.E. Systems and Advanced Technologies Engineering


ORegen™ is an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) based thermodynamic superheat cycle that recovers waste heat from gas turbine exhaust and converts it into electric energy. Heat from the turbine exhaust is transferred to a closed diathermic oil loop, which is used to heat an organic fluid loop. This lower temperature heat is converted into useful work and electricity, like in a conventional steam bottoming cycle. The diathermic oil and the organic fluid allow low temperature heat sources to be exploited efficiently to produce electricity over a power range from a few MW up to 16 MW per unit.

The ORegen simulator is a large scale model, based on COMPSYS-MCwI™ application for SIMULINK®, useful to analyse transients plant dynamics, such as in start-up and shut down. It describes several interacting phenomena and subsystems with about 2000 states. It implements two phase fluid thermodynamics, with working fluid near the critical point mixed with inert gas, entering the circuit through rotary gas barrier seals and during depressurized shut downs. Valves and turbomachinery performances are modelled by gas thermo-fluid dynamics components, based on performance curve and maps.

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Paolo Barbero

The ITER TFC project:  closing to the welding phase

M. Bolla, SIMIC
M. Spagnolo, G. Falcitelli, EnginSoft


The magnet system of ITER consists of 48 superconducting coils of different sizes, shapes and performance and is subdivided into 4 sub-systems, i.e. the Toroidal Field Coil system, the Poloidal Field Coil system, a Central Solenoid and the Correction Coil System. The Toroidal Field Coil system consists of eighteen "D"-shaped toroidal field magnets placed around the vacuum vessel in order to produce a magnetic field whose primary function is to confine the plasma particles. The toroidal field coils are designed to produce a total magnetic energy of 41 gigajoules and a maximum magnetic field of 11.8 tesla; weighing 310 tonnes each, and measuring 9 x 17 m, they are among the largest components of the ITER machine. Toroidal field coils are wound in "double pancakes"—layers of spiralled conductor embedded in radial plates and encased in large stainless steel structures ( With such numbers, the "superstructure" of toroidal field coils pushes the limits of manufacturability; SIMIC, by means of state-of-the-art welding techniques, accepted the challenge to manufacture 10 of the 18 TF coils as well as to design and to manufacture all the special tools necessary for performing the job. FEA calculations were mandatory; a procedure for the welding simulation of TFC cases was set up and validated on the basis of welding trials on portions of the system (mock-up); the results of welding simulations on the whole TFC FE model are currently available.

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Chris Wilkes

Using tolerance analysis software to explore manufacturing alternatives’


Vestas Wind Systems A/S, the world’s largest producer and manufacturer of wind turbines, used Excel to run tolerance analyses combined with some trial and error on the prototypes for a new design. During one final test before shipping the first unit to the field they realized that the spinner at the center of the blades was colliding with the fixed nacelle. The required gap in the design wasn’t there in the actual assembly.

What would they do? What would be most effective in terms of cost and time? Would they change the design - an engineering change could cost 5000€ for just the paperwork? Before understanding the cause of the problem one consideration was making adjustments at the time of final assembly in the field. Before changing anything, though, they used CETOL integrated within PTC® Creo® to understand the true cause of the problem and explore better alternatives for resolution. Attendees will learn how Vestas explored both manufacturing and design alternatives to enable them to solve their hub and nacelle issue. They will learn how to apply the same methodology in their design process by incorporating tolerance analysis tools, such as CETOL 6σ.

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Ansaldo Nucleare

Fabrizio Magugliani

Numerical investigation of the flow in the Fuel Assembly of the Advanced Lead Fast Reactor European Demonstrator (ALFRED) using LES, DES and RANS-based turbulence models

Ivan Di Piazza, ENEA FSN-ING, C.R. Brasimone
Vincent Moreau (CRS4, Environment and Imaging Science), Italy
Federico Piscaglia, Andrea Montorfano (POLITECNICO DI MILANO - Dipartimento di Energia), Italy
Walter Borreani (University of Genova, DIME-Thermal Division), Italy
Ranieri Marinari (University of Pisa-DICI), Italy


In the context of GEN-IV heavy liquid metal-cooled reactors safety studies, the flow in the Fuel Assembly (FA) is critical for ensuring the proper removal of the fission heat; the blockage of a sub-channel of the FA is considered one of the most important and realistic accident condition. The temperature of the coolant leaving the FA is an important indicator of the health of the FA (i.e. the effective heat removal) and is usually monitored via a dedicated, safety-related system (e.g. thermocouple). The blockage of a sub-channel in the FA impairs the correct cooling of the fuel pins, may be the root cause of anomalous heating of the cladding and of the wrapper and potentially impact other fuel pins not directly located in the proximity of the blocked area. This paper presents the results for the flow field as predicted by different turbulence models (LES, DES, RANS-based) using commercial codes (ANSYS Fluent, ANSYS CFX, CD-adapco STAR-CCM+) as well as open source code (OpenFOAM).

In 2017 the new facility Blocked Fuel Pin bundle Simulator (BFPS) will be installed within the NACIE-UP (NAtural CIrculation Experiment-UPgrade) facility located at the ENEA Brasimone Research Center (Italy) to perform an experimental campaign whose results will provide the validation of the numerical investigations.

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University of Tor Vergata

Francesco Giorgetti

Applications of a new tool for fast stress recovery to DEMO TF coil system

Marco Evangelos Biancolini, University of Tor Vergata
Andrea Chiappa, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy
Francois Nunio, CEA (Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies) Saclay, France


DEMOnstration fusion reactor (DEMO) represents the second step in the EU fusion roadmap that has the objective to demonstrate the feasibility, from an economic point of view, to produce electric power using fusion reaction. The structural analyses of such a large machine represent a crucial issue for the design assessment. In fact a full detailed 3D model would require a huge mesh. In this work a novel procedure is presented, based on Radial Basis Functions interpolation, that allows to recover the stress state in a generic 3D section with low computational effort and significant time saving. This tool uses a mixed approach that allows to adjust the boundary shape and applies the magnetic loads to the local 3D model. To prove the Stress Recovery Tool (SRT) validity the results, obtained in a portion of the whole structure, have been compared to those of a high fidelity model. Once validated the SRT has been applied to a 2015 reference geometry.

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Ugo Avagliano

CAE-driven Design of The SuperCups Trays – Saipem’s further innovation in Urea Technology

Erik Mazzoleni, EnginSoft


This paper describes the results of the installation in two industrial facilities of the innovative SnamprogettiTM SuperCups technology. The design of the SuperCups was supported by a comprehensive CFD performance assessment carried out by Saipem and EnginSoft, that allowed to study the physical phenomena taking place into the reactor, in order to select the best SuperCups configuration and to confidently move to the test phase on field.

The improvements in mixing performances and residence time predicted by the CFD simulations were confirmed by the field data in terms of increased performance of the reactor. The collaboration between Saipem and EnginSoft for the development of the SuperCups has been a continuous process of theoretical studies, CFD simulations and field testing that started in 2011 and culminated in 2014 with the first industrial application.

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European Commission - DG JRC

Giovanni Mercurio

Can Simulation contribute to avoid illegal production of Nuclear Weapons?

Alberto Deponti, EnginSoft


The physical modeling of uranium isotopes (235U, 238U) separation process by centrifugation is a key aspect for predicting the nuclear fuel enrichment plant performances under surveillance by the International Nuclear Safeguards Authorities. Enriched uranium may be diverted and used for building nuclear weapons. Rigorous safeguard activities are needed to avoid any possible misuse of the enrichment plants and the consequence thread of nuclear weapon proliferation. In this framework numerical models can support the activities of inspectors and help in the detection of possible misuses. The first step is to have a fast, reliable and validated model capable to simulate gas centrifuge plants. The proposed 1D CFD numerical model of a centrifuges enrichment cascade was implemented using the Flowmaster tool and validated with literature data. Different enriched U diversion scenarios were simulated and analyzed and the results are presented. The first results demonstrate the capability of the code to reproduce the enrichment plant operation in Normal and Off-Normal condition putting the ground for regular use of the simulation tool in the frame of Nuclear Safeguards activities.

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Jonathan Roncolato

Concentrated Solar Power plant piping optimization for gaseous Heat Transfer Fluid

Philipp Good, ETH Zurich
Andrea Pedretti, Airlight Energy Manufacturing, Switzerland


The CSP parabolic collectors developed by the Swiss company Airlight Energy SA exploit air as HTF with operating temperatures up to 600°C. In a CSP plant adopting this kind of technology, the piping network optimization is pivotal to minimize plant infrastructure and operation costs. The plant piping model, including collectors, straight pipes insulated with radiation shields and junctions, was developed in Simscape adopting a custom physical domain. The CSP plant model was exploited to simulate several operating conditions taking into account the yearly solar power variation, which depends on the site geographical coordinates. The model includes a single tank thermal energy storage based on the rocks packed bed technology, designed to daily store part of the sun energy, so to ensure a constant feeding for the bottom steam power cycle also during the night. ModeFrontier, coupled with the Simscape model, was used to establish the most promising piping layout in the domain of interest (which includes pipes diameter, solid insulation thickness and thermal shields arrangement) investigating different optimization functions and criteria.

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DII, Dipartimento Ingegneria Industriale, University of Padova

Renzo Tosato

Reciprocating compressors: indicated, theoretical and numerical pressure cycles


In order to assure a diagnostics services for reciprocating compressors experimental measurements of pressure are necessary. The comparison between the pressure cycle indicated and the cycle of theoretical pressure is currently used to check the conditions of reciprocating compressors and prevent failures or design errors. The indicated pressures of transducers mounted in the passage cylinder and along the tubes can estimate losses, check for the movements of the valves and depend on the number of revolutions, from the cooling system, the size of the ducts, valves and the wear of the compressor. Theoretical cycle can be determined by knowing the geometric dimensions of the compressor elements, the suction and delivery pressures, the pumped gas, the clearance volumes, polytrophic index of compression and expansion.

Theoretic cycles are more realistic when calculated by means of experimental measurements. Simulation programs are also able to estimate the pressures in the ducts and in the cylinders of a reciprocating compressor.

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CHIMIND - University of Bologna

Claudio Carletti

Solids Distribution and Mixing Time in Slurry Stirred Tanks

Giuseppina Montante, CHIMIND - University of Bologna
Alessandro Paglianti, DICAM - University of Bologna


Several industrial equipment, such as stirred tanks, fluidized beds, slurry bubble columns, are adopted for tackling multiphase systems at high dispersed phase loadings and turbulent flow regime, either for physical operations and for (bio-)chemical reactions. The development of experimental and modelling methods for their characterization has experienced significant advancements so far, but several aspects of the complex interactions governing the liquid-particle and the particle-particle interactions still require extensive investigation. In this work, a solid-liquid stirred tank equipped a Pitched Blade Turbine is investigated by Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) The analysis concerns dense solid suspensions, that are of interest for several chemical and biochemical processes. The main goal of the contribution is to present a benchmark for RANS-based CFD simulations based on the Eulerian treatment for each phase and suitable multiphase turbulence models, whose scant validation out of dilute conditions is often due to limited experimental information on the local dispersion features.

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Alessio Suman

Analysis of a Non-Newtonian Fluid Processing Pimp by means of an RE7CFD Methodology

Nicola Aldi, Fluid-A
Carlo Buratto, Fluid-A
Alessandro Carandina, Fluid-A
Nicola Casari, Fluid-A


In this work a reverse engineering (RE) procedure and a comparative CFD analysis using different software are presented. The three-dimensional flow in the semi-open impeller and volute of a centrifugal pump has been numerically simulated. This kind of impeller is less likely to clog with solid bodies (this is an important aspect in the case of slurry-processing) and for this reason is suitable for food, chemical and Oil&Gas industries. It is well known that the performance of a centrifugal pump drops when handling viscous fluids. Even so the pump behavior during the pumping of non-Newtonian fluids has not been investigated so far.

The RE procedure has been applied to a commercially available pump and the solid models of the impeller and volute have been reconstructed by means of a laser scanner. The simulations have been carried out using both open-source and proprietary software (OpenFOAM® and STAR-CCM+®). The performance of the machine handling both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids have been investigated. The slurries which are usually processed show a behavior which can be modeled according to a power law. Internal flow field, pressure distribution and pump performance have been obtained for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. Particular attention has been put on the apparent viscosity that drives the non-Newtonian model.

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