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University of Salento

Manuela Marra

Knowledge-based Manufacturing: A system to simplify the management of manufacturing rules

Ramon De Pascalis, University of Salento
Claudio Pascarelli, University of Salento, Italy
Angelo Corallo, University of Salento, Italy
Francesco Micchetti, EnginSoft, Italy


In manufacturing companies, technologists use CAD/CAM tools for NC programming. For faster programming, feature based approaches have been developed; they allow to automatically generate toolpath recognizing both standard and custom machining features, and defining for each of them the best or preferred machining process based on predefined rules. The definition of FBM (Feature Based Machining) rules requires advanced competences, even programming skills, not usually owned by expert CAM technologists. Moreover, the standardization required by these instruments is too rigorous for real machining practices. It is therefore necessary a data and manufacturing rules management environment, in which knowledge engineer can define rules based on industrial best practice and CAM technologists can customize them for production requirements. A possible solution is to extend the FBM software module with an easy-to-use system that simplify feature based rules management and deployment.

A new methodology and a Java tool are proposed.

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Politecnico di Torino

Andrea Rapisarda

Heat Transfer Numerical Analysis Applied to a Quenching Process

Alessio Desando, Politecnico di Torino
Elena Campagnoli, Politecnico di Torino


The high requirements in terms of thermal and structural stresses for the modern technological applications pointed out the need for a detailed knowledge of the manufacturing processes utilized to produce more durable materials. The quenching process is one of these treatments, a rapid cooling utilized to obtain harder metal components. In the last years, research efforts about this process have developed methods to predict the heat transfer coefficients.

The first part of the present work consists into the application of literature correlations with water and oil as quenching mediums, on different geometries. The objective is to estimate the heat transfer behavior during the thermal process. Then, a numerical model with these thermal transient features has been implemented to simulate the quenching process in oil for a cylinder made of INCONEL 600. Finally, mesh sensitivity has been carried out, in order to evaluate how cell thickness influences the accuracy of the cooling rate curves.

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Nicola Pavan

Development of a simulation tool for automatic sizing of hot runner systems

Nicolò Spiezia, M3E


In the last decade all the OEMs in automotive industry have been spent a lot of efforts in reducing as much as possible project lead time increasing at same time the quality of final product. This trend, empowered by new technologies, has a strong effect on company organization and project workflow but probably the main impact is on operations and manufacturing area. The complete supply chain has been pulled in order to cut design and manufacturing time and speed up decision processes. The wider area involved in this trend is that one of plastic component suppliers which has to cut the delivery time of tools, machines and equipment.

Operating in the injection moulding field as hot runner system supplier, HRS develops a simulation software in order to predict in the most correct way the performances of hot runners and to provide an automatic sizing of systems in order to respect specific customer’s requests and ensuring at same time the best control of the injection moulding process and polymers transformation.

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AVL Italia

Rok Kopun

Analysis of quenching process by mean of 3D CFD approach

Peter Tibaut, Ugo Sorge, Cristiano Pecollo
AVL Italia


Immersion quenching cooling process is a key step in traditional heat treatment process to produce supersaturated solid solution for subsequent aging hardening of the material. The efficient quenching process leads in reducing the possibilities on distortion and cracking of the cast parts, due to residual stresses, and consequently has an important influence on power and torque requirements. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) allows to understand the complex behavior of this process. In this work, an FCA Diesel engine has been considered for the numerical investigation during the quenching cooling process using the commercial CFD code AVL FIRE(r). By the mean of CFD analysis, the evolution of Temperature and heat flux during the cooling phase is calculated. These data is then used for structural analysis to get the residual stress without imposing fixed HTC Two different dipping directions have been taken into account, where in both cases aluminum alloy was placed on a steel rack and together submerged within the water.

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EnginSoft USA

Andreas Vlahinos

Workflow for Design Optimization of Lattice Structures


Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM), also known as 3D Printing, is the forthcoming advanced manufacturing technique. In this fabrication process multiple materials can be combined and the shape complexity is free.

The enormous potential of light weight designs makes ALM a preferred manufacturing technique for components in defense applications such as drones, guided projectiles, etc. One of the current barriers of commercialization of ALM is the absence of best practices, design processes and guidelines. A work flow that utilizes topology optimization, sub divisional surface modeling and lattice structure features will be presented. The Design Optimization Workflow will be demonstrated by an example of a component with heavy launch loads.

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University of Parma

Giuseppe Avventuroso

Simulation-based analysis of Flexible Manufacturing Systems

Enzo Morosini Frazzon, University of Santa Catarina Campus, Florianópolis
Ruben Foresti, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Parma
Marco Silvestri, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Parma, University of Applied Sciences of Southern Switzerland (SUPSI)


Due to increasing complexity of manufacturing systems, there is a need for proper approaches supporting fast and reliable preliminary evaluation, before effective system installation. In this direction, this paper presents a simulation-based operational and economic analysis of a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS). The evaluation, performed by means of a simulation model, considers Industry 4.0 concepts for supporting the integration of innovative technologies, such as additive manufacturing (i.e. 3D-prinitng), a scara robot, a pick-and-place robot, a 3D scanner and an automated warehouse as well as an automated transport conveyor belt between each station.

More in details, a discrete-event simulation model was developed and employed for the analysis. The simulated pilot case refers to a particular automated production line carried out in an academic context. The first objective was to verify if simulation can faithfully reproduce the 3D-printing process and hence demonstrate the suitability of involved technologies for the application in industrial scale. Second, this research aimed to fill the gap regarding structured approaches for the analysis of FMS. Finally, the last objective was to provide a simulation-based tool for enhancing decisions concerning set up changes in 3D-printing production systems.

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TEC Eurolab

Fabio Esposito

The simulation of real defects with the Industrial Computed Tomography


The definition of the acceptability criteria for defects present within industrial components is often a complicated matter, since the specific application of each specimen is always to be taken into account. During the quality control, in order to avoid the risk of critical failures, high safety factors are commonly adopted, thus leading to the rejection of specimens whose defects could, in point of fact, be acceptable. In this context, it would be very useful to simulate whether a specific defect is actually critical or not.

The aim of this work is to highlight the synergy between Industrial Computed Tomography (CT) and Finite Element Analysis (FEA): by means of tomography it is possible to reconstruct the whole 3D volume of the specimen, detecting its actual dimensions and reproducing the material’s defects; by means of FEA this virtualization can be exploited to simulate the real specimen itself, inclusive of the defects detected by tomography, rather than the ideal CAD geometry. Tomographic volumes of some benchmark components are here presented, together with the results of FEA simulation in ANSYS Workbench environment. Simulation results are moreover compared with resistance values obtained by experimental mechanical tests. This allows to demonstrate the reliability of the method and, as a consequence, whether linear flaws and porosities present within the component are actually critical or not, with the final purpose of determining if the component is acceptable or should actually be rejected.

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Markus Klein

The Use of Optical 3D Metrology in Product Development for the Verification of Numerical Simulations


Optical 3D metrology is nowadays widely used for the verification and optimization of numerical simulations. Numerical simulations require input parameters, such as surface geometry data and material parameters, as well as boundary conditions, like the test stand behavior and stability under load. 3D measurement systems are today utilized for the determination of material parameters, the evaluation of test rigs and stands, the measurement of components or test specimens and the subsequent validation of the corresponding simulation results.

This paper will discuss the use of optical 3D metrology systems for the generation of input parameters, boundary conditions and the validation of numerical simulation results at different applications examples from the automotive and aerospace industry.

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 Giuseppe Cilia

FDM as a new manufacturing technology: the challenge for demanding applications


FDM, or Fused Deposition Modeling, is a well known technology in the field of Additive Layer Manufacturing disciplines. Specific technical characteristics of the FDM process and new high-performance plastic materials enable the production of functional prototypes as well as end use parts.

Design principles as well as mechanical properties that can be obtained with the FDM process will be discussed during the presentation.

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Alessandro Cariani

Chaos Theory and convergence in CFD simulation: a case study


Chaos theory is the field of study in mathematics that studies the behavior and condition of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions - a response popularly referred to as the butterfly effect. CFD is one of the field where boundary conditions have big effect on stability of calculations, as Robert Shaw (a physics grad student in the 1970s) discovered studying a simple phenomena, the faucet’s flow.

When the water flow is low, the result is a steady dripping that increases its rate as the faucet is open. As the system is driven harder by increasing the flow, the constant interval between drops gives way to two alternating intervals, similar to mathematical description of animal populations. Then, at higher flow rates, each of the two different intervals itself subdivides; a still higher rate provokes chaotic behavior, with no discernable pattern. This is why in CFD analysis the right choice of boundary condition is the best way to avoid chaos...

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